Friday, 20 February 2015

ANTI AMOEBIC DRUG - NITROMIDAZOLES

                                    NITROMIDAZOLE


MECHANISM : These drugs gets activated once it enters the microorganism and forms cytotoxic products that damage DNA. Its bio activation happens only in anaerobic micro organisms .  

DRUGS : METRONIDAZOLE , TINIDAZOLE , SATRANIDAZOLE .

PHARMACOKINETICS :
  1. These drugs taken orally and I.V
  2. Metabolized in liver 
  3. Excreted in urine 
  4. Tinidazole and Satranidazole is longer acting than metronidazole ( potency and efficacy are same )
USE :
  1. Intestinal and extra-intestinal amoebiasis 
  2. Trichomoniasis
  3. Giardiasis
  4. Bacterial Vaginosis
  5. Anaerobic bacteria like bacteroides , clostridium 
  6. Combination therapy for H.pylori
ADVERSE EFFECTS :
  1. Metallic taste
  2. Discoloration of urine 
  3. Dizziness and Seizure 
  4. Disulphiram like action 
  5. Nausea 
  6. Leukopenia 
  7. Abdominal cramps 
TREATMENT OF AMOEBIC DYSENTERY :

METRONIDAZOLE 500 mg 3 times/day 
                      +
DILOXAMIDE FUROATE 500 mg 3 times / day

Diloxamide furoate is a very powerful intestinal amoebicide
Metronidazole is an active extra-intestinal amoebicide , it acts as intestianl amoebicide as well . 





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